## Sunday, April 29, 2012

### Stress Analysis of Piping

The analysis of piping under pressure, weight and thennal expansion is complex. This complexity can be understood by knovledge of Principal Axis System.

Stress is considered as the ratio of Force to Area. To find the stress in the small element, say cube of a piece of pipe, construct a three-dimensional, mutually perpendicular principal axis system with each axis perpendicular to the face of the cube it intersects.

Each force, acting on the cube can be resolved into force components, acting along each of the axis. Each force, acting on the face of the cube divided by area of the cube face is called the principal stress.

The principal stress acting along the centerline of the pipe is called Longitudinal principal stress. This stress is caused by longitudinal bending, axial force loading or pressure.

Radial principal stress acts on a line from a radial line from center of pipe through the pipe wall. This stress is compressive stress acting on pipe inside diameter caused by internal pressure or a tensile stress caused by vacuum pressure.

## Friday, April 27, 2012

### Hydraulic Reservoirs, Filters, Pumps, Accumulators, And Motors

#### INTRODUCTION

A means of storing hydraulic fluid and minimizing contamination is necessary to any aircraft hydraulic system. These functions are performed by reservoirs and filters. The component which causes fluid flow in a hydraulic system--the heart of any hydraulic system--can be a hand pump, power-driven pump, accumulator, or any combination of the three. Finally, a means of converting hydraulic pressure to mechanical rotation is sometimes necessary, and this is accomplished by a hydraulic motor.

### HYDRAULIC RESERVOIRS

The hydraulic reservoir is a container for holding the fluid required to supply the system, including a reserve to cover any losses from minor leakage and evaporation. The reservoir can be designed to provide space for fluid expansion, permit air entrained in the fluid to escape, and to help cool the fluid. Figure 1-1 shows two typical reservoirs. Compare the two reservoirs item by item and, except for the filters and bypass valve, notice the similarities.

## Wednesday, April 25, 2012

### Shop Fabrication Vs Loose Pipe And Fittings

FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC (FRP) PIPING SYSTEMS
A COMPARISON OF TWO FABRICATION METHODS
SHOP FABRICATION VS LOOSE PIPE & FITTINGS

#### Introduction

When investigating the use of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe in the chemical, petrochemical, marine, and other industries, several decisions have to be made early on in the design of the piping system. These include the pipe fabrication technique (filament winding vs hand-lay up, for example), the method of installation (flanged pipe vs plain end pipe, and field-fabricated vs shop fabricated spools), and the joining system (adhesive-bonded vs butt and strap, for example), to name a few.
The selection of the system fabrication method affects the entire scope of the project from pipe manufacture to system installation, thus making this selection process one of the more critical ones that has to be made in the design and specification of fiberglass pipe systems. The two fabrication methods that are available to the purchaser of fiberglass pipe systems is the shop fabricated pipe system and the loose supplied pipe and fittings system. Each of these fabrication methodologies has its advantages and disadvantages. This report will first give a description of each type of fabrication method, tabulate the advantages and disadvantages, and outline potential applications.

## Monday, April 23, 2012

### What will the piping engineer learn from this section?

The piping engineer will gain the following skills after studying this section:

1. What is the purpose of hygienic piping?

2. How to apply general piping engineering principles for the hygiene sector?

3. Comparison of steel pipe vs glass/plastic.

4. Hygienic piping standards?

### 1. Introduction

Hygienic piping finds application in Food, Pharma and Beverage industry. Due to the increase in automation, on-line CIP has come into existence in these sectors. In hygiene systems, about 4/3rd time is spent on process engineering and 2/3rd time is devoted for the cleaning and disinfection process. All surfaces in contact with the product (say food) must be inert to the product under the conditions, of use and must not be caught, migrate to or be absorbed by the product.

## Sunday, April 22, 2012

### Thermal Insulation Of Piping

Thermal insulation plays a major role in piping engineering. It reduces the heat loss and hence improves the economics of the process. There are also various other advantages for thermal insulation which will be described below.

What will the piping engineer learn from this section ?
The piping engineer will gain the following skills after studying this section:
1. What is the purpose of insulation?
2. How to optimise the thickness vs cost of insulation?
3. What are the various types of insulating materials?
4. How to select an insulating material?

## Saturday, April 21, 2012

### Learning Objectives

Equipment layout is based on certain considerations. The final plant design is executed on the this drawing and it should be seen that plant should be safe and economical. This equipment layout is very important because this is used for the execution of plant.

The piping engineer has to understand the concept of equipment layout and consideration. While preparing layout, the piping engineer should design a steady process, non-hazardous utility and facility.

### Introduction

In general the various process plants we come across are petroleum refineries, petrochemical complexes, fertiliser plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical plants which need special attention due to the nature of materials and products handled.

## Friday, April 13, 2012

### Making and Importance of Process P & ID (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram)

#### Introduction:

The successful conversion of a conceptual idea into actual execution of process industry is the basic aim of any process engineer .Normally a project passes through various phases , viz., basic engineering , detailed engineering equipment fabrication /procurement , civil/structural work , erection and commissioning .The conceptual idea , either from the process development cell (for new processes) of from the marketing engineer (as per the customer) requirement , is converted to executable documents during basic engineering stage , and thus governs the successful completion of the project.

## Tuesday, April 10, 2012

### Giving Away 20 Licenses of Picture Collage Maker Pro Special Edition

Good News for all Piping Guide readers. First time here i am organizing a give away of 20 license of Special Picture Collage Maker Pro (Special Edition). Each license of this software costs 39.90\$ which we giving away to our readers. Using this software you can create photo collages and digital scrapbooks from your digital photos and share with your Family, relatives and friends. And i want to say special thanks to Lalit Indoria of Blogotech for providing license keys with us.

Want to win a license? Jump to the widget at the end of this post to participate.

## Thursday, April 5, 2012

### Job Openings of Design (OnShore And OffShore), Procurement, Construction, Projects And Support

There are some very good openings in EPC Company (Both Oil and Gas and Power) in both design and site activities. If you found, that you have relevant experience in following listed requirements, please forward your resume to given email id's given at end of article. Also please send CV with Present and Expected package both.

Please Note that following listed openings job locations are:

• For Design professionals Onshore -  Gurgaon
• For Site Engineers – Jamnagar
• Offshore openings are for Chennai.

## Sunday, April 1, 2012

### Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

This drawing is commonly referred to as the "Piping and Instrumentation Diagram" Its objective is to indicate all process and service lines, instruments and controls, equipment and data necessary for the design groups. The process flow diagram is the primary source of information for developing the P&ID.The P&ID should define piping, equipment and instrumentation well enough to cost estimation and for subsequent design, construction, operation and modification of the process. Material balance data, flow rates, temperatures, pressures and piping fitting details are not shown and purely mechanical piping details such as elbows, joints and unions are inappropriate to P&ID's.