Sunday, July 29, 2012
Various Activities Involved In Various Phases of Pipeline Project Implementation and Pipeline Designs Features
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 11:11 PM
Pipeline is the most preferred option to transport oil, gas or products in bulk. It could be thousands of km long, branched and networked.
Configuration of both oil & gas pipeline are very similar. A cross country oil or gas pipeline system, normally starts with pumping of oil or compression of gas to develop the requisite pressure to travel a long distance. The pressure required for pumping of oil or compression of gas depends on pipeline length, pipe diameter, & destination pressure requirements. For long pipelines (hundreds of km), booster compressor for gas pipeline and booster pumps for oil pipeline are required along the length.
Wednesday, July 25, 2012
Pipeline risks, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and Pipeline Construction and Various Steps Involved
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 11:52 PM
The most common pipeline threats which may lead to the loss of technical integrity are given below:
- Internal corrosion and Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
- Internal erosion
- External corrosion and bi-carbonate stress corrosion cracking
- Mechanical impact, external interference.
- Fatigue. E.g. sudden surges of pressure in the fluid
- Hydrodynamic forces
- Geo-technical forces
- Growth of material defects
- Thermal expansion forces
Tuesday, July 24, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 11:36 PM
Linear Programming (LP) application software is used for process plant. It is designed to provide plants with an economic advantage in today’s highly competitive environment. This system uses feedstock properties, plant models, and economic considerations to help planners maximize profitability over a board operating range-both in conceptual and design stage as well as to optimize the operation. It takes into consideration of all the constrains and variables expressed in the form of linear equations. The ideal applications of LP model is where:
- There are many potential solution
- Certain objectives to be optimized
- Interconnectedness between the variable elements of the system.
Sunday, July 22, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 12:04 AM
The major cost of on-land pipeline will comprise of:
· Survey of Route
· Acquiring ROW
· Line Pipe
· Wrapping and Corrosion Coating
· Welding of Line Pipe
· Laying of Pipes
· Backfilling and Restoration
· Cathodic Protection by Impressed Current System
· Placement of Route markers
Wednesday, July 18, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 12:59 AM
In the process industry, the design phase starts with the process design and followed by engineering design for other disciplines.
Two of the most important drawing documents in this stage are:
A Process Flow Diagram (PFD), shows all equipment in the process scheme like pumps, compressors, heater, reactors, distillation column that are required for processing, and links them up in the form of a flow diagram showing materials flow and heat flow through each of the equipment.
Monday, July 16, 2012
Emergency Response Plan in a Refinery and Petrochemical Plants and Various Source of Pollution in Plant
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 1:33 AM
A plant is always designed with safety in mind. As the final layer of design safety, Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are built in which cause shut down of the plant in unsafe situations. SIS is a system composed of sensors, logic solvers, and final control elements for the purpose of taking the process to a safe state when pre-determined conditions are violated.
Elements of An Emergency Response Plan
The owner must develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which must address, the following as a minimum:
· Pre emergency planning and coordination with outside parties
· Emergency command system
· Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and communication in the command system.
· Emergency recognition and prevention
· Safe distance and control
· Emergency medical treatment and first aid.
· Emergency alerting and response procedures
· List of emergency equipment and their location
Saturday, July 14, 2012
Understanding Hazards in the Industry. Different types of Hazards in Refining and Petrochemical Industries
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 1:47 AM
Hazards are defined as having the potential to cause harm, including ill health and injury, damage to property, products or the environment, production losses or increased liabilities.
Threats – These are possible causes that could potentially release the hazard and produce and incident.
Incidents – These are defined as an unplanned event of chain of events, which have caused or could have caused injury, illness and or damage (loss), to assets, the environment, or third parties.
Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 1:56 AM
Causes of Accident
The various causes of accidents are:
· Defect in Design
· Defect in Construction
· Defect in Material of Equipment
· Faulty Operation or Maintenance
· Lack of Monitoring
Monday, July 9, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 2:10 AM
In the beginning of field life, unless the pressures are very low, the well fluid comes out of wells on its own pressure. This kind of production of oil on its own pressure is called Primary Production. A primary production facility comprises of:
· Manifold on top of the well, called Christmas Tree.
· Equipment and systems for separation of oil, gas and water.
· Equipment and systems to make the oil and gas as free of water as specified by the customer (dehydration of oil & gas).
· Equipment and systems for measurement and transportation of oil & gas to the customer.
· Equipment and systems to treat water for disposal.
Saturday, July 7, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 2:08 PM
In general the various process plants we come across are petroleum refineries, petrochemical complexes, fertiliser plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical plants which need special attention due to the nature of materials and products handled.
Before starting the development of the plant layout, the following information is required.
i. Process units and capacities.
ii. A flow diagram indicating the process flow sequence.
iii. Utility requirement.
iv. Number of storage tanks and also open storage areas.
v. Raw material / product receipt and dispatch philosophy.
vi. Covered storage required.
vii. Number of flares (As applicable).
viii. Grouping philosophy for utilities.
ix. Non-plant building i.e. Administrative block, laboratory, security workshop, parking space, fire station, canteen, etc.
Friday, July 6, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 10:09 AM
The chemical process industry is involved in many operations, for different types of fluids, with different applications. Though in principle, various guidelines and formulae are available for pipeline sizing for different services. Hence it becomes critical at times conceptualization is necessary before deciding design parameters.
When fluids are to be carried from one place to another in household piping to cross country pipeline, piping and fitting constitutes a high cost. The size of piping plays an important role in the pumping cost. Hence the selection of the line size becomes important. Though in principle, various formulae are available for sizing for different services, conceptualisation is necessary before deciding parameters.
Tuesday, July 3, 2012
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 10:12 AM
Pipelines carrying two-phase fluids (Liquid and gas) are called two-phase flow. The analysis of two-phase flow piping is more complex and less understood than that of incompressible or compressible fluid flow.
Two-phase Flow Capabilities
- Complete thermodynamics: phases appear and disappear as conditions warrant.