Friday, February 6, 2009

PIPING CODES & STANDARDS

Codes and Standards

The following codes are used for the design, construction and inspection of piping systems in North America.

ASME B31 Piping Codes

Piping codes developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers:

B31.1 Power Piping

Piping typically found in electric power generating stations, in industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating systems and central and district heating and cooling plants.

B31.3 Process Piping

Piping typically found in petroleum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, per, semiconductor and cryogenic plants and related processing plants and terminals.

B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids

Piping transporting products which are predominately quid between plants and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulating, and metering stations.

B31.5 Refrigeration Piping

Piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants.

B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems

Piping transporting products which are predominately gas between sources and terminals including compressor, regulating and metering stations, gas gathering pipelines.

B31.9 Building Services Piping

Piping typically found in industrial, institutional, commercial and public buildings and in multi-unit residences which does not require the range of sizes, pressures and temperatures covered in B311.1

B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems

Piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and terminals within terminals, pumping and regulating stations.

The following codes are used to specify the geometric, material and strength of piping and components:

ASME B16 Dimensional Codes

The ASME B16 Piping Component Standards

Piping component standard developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300

B16.4 Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250

B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

B16.9 Factory Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings

B16.10 Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves

B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded

B16.12 Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings

B16.14 Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads

B16.15 Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings Class 125 and 250

B16.18 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings

B16.20 Ring Joint Gaskets and Grooves for Steel Pipe Flanges

B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

B16.22 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings

B16.23 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings – DWV

B16.24 Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 150, 300, 400,600, 900, 1500 and 2500

B16.25 Butt welding Ends

B16.26 Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes

B16.28 Wrought Steel Butt welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns

B16.29 Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings – DWV

B16.32 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Fittings for Sovent Drainage Systems

B16.33 Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping systems Up to 125 psig (sizes ½ through 2)

B16.34 Valves – Flanged, Threaded and Welding End

B16.36 Orifice Flanges

B16.37 Hydrostatic Testing of Control Valves

B16.38 Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution (Manually Operated, NPS 2 ½ to 12, 125 psig maximum)

B16.39 Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Classes 1150, 250 and 300

B16.40 Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gs Shutoffs and Valves in Gas Distribution Systems

B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Class 150 and 300

B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60)


ASME B36 Piping Component Standards

Piping standards developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers / American National Standards Institute:

B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe

B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe

Other ASME or ANSI

B73.1 Horizontal, End Suction Centrifugal Pumps

B73.2 Vertical In-line Centrifugal Pumps

B133.2 Basic Gas Turbine

NEPA Codes

National Electrical Protection Association

Piping covering fire protection systems using water, carbon dioxide, halon, foam, dry chemical and wet chemicals.

NFC - NFPA Codes

National Fire Code / National Fire Protection Association

NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities

Piping for medical and laboratory gas systems.


CSA Standards

Canadian Standards Association

CSA Z662 - 94 Oil & Gas Pipeline Systems

This standard supercedes these standards:

 CAN/CSA Z183 Oil Pipeline Systems

 CAN/CSA Z184 Gas Pipeline Systems

 CAN/CSA Z187 Offshore Pipelines

Other CSA Piping and Component Codes:

B 51 Boilers and Pressure Vessels

B 53 Identification of Piping Systems

B 52 Mechanical Refrigeration Code

B 63 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipes

B 137.3 Rigid Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe

B 137.4 Polyethylene Piping Systems for Gas Service

W 48.1 Mild Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes

W 48.3 Low-Alloy Steel Arc-Welding Electrodes

Z 245.1 Steel Line Pipe

Z 245.11 Steel Fittings

Z 245.12 Steel Flanges

Z 245.15 Steel Valves

Z 245.20 External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe

Z 245.21 External Polyethylene Coating for Pipe

Z 276 LNG - Production, Storage and Handling

Standard Practices

Piping and related component standards developed by the Manufacturer’s Standardization Society. The MSS standards are directed at general industrial applications. The pipeline industry makes extensive use of these piping component and quality acceptance standards.

SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces Pipe Flanges and Connecting End Flanges of Valves and Fittings

SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Union

SP-44 Steel Pipeline Flanges

SP-53 Quality Standards for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Magnetic Particle

SP-54 Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Radiographic

SP-55 Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Visual

SP-58 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Material, Design and manufacture

SP-61 Pressure Testing of Steel Valves

SP-69 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application

SP-75 High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings

SP-82 Valve Pressure Testing Methods

SP-89 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Fabrication and Installation Practices



API

American Petroleum Institute

The API standards are focused on oil production, refinery and product distribution services. Equipment specified to these standards are typically more robust than general industrial applications.

Spec. 5L Line Pipe

Spec. 6D Pipeline Valves

Spec. 6FA Fire Test for Valves

Spec. 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids

Spec. 12F Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids

Spec. 12J Oil and Gas Separators

Spec. 12K Indirect Type Oil Field Heaters

Std. 594 Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves

Std. 598 Valve Inspection and Testing

Std. 599 Metal Plug Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends

Std. 600 Steel Gate Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends

Std. 602 Compact Steel Gate Valves-Flanged Threaded, Welding, and Extended-Body Ends

Std. 603 Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate Valves

Std. 607 Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves

Std. 608 Metal Ball Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends

Std. 609 Lug-and Wafer-Type Butterfly Valves

Std. 610 Centrifugal Pumps For Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services

Std. 611 General Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services

Std. 612 Special Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services

Std. 613 Special Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services

Std. 614 Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing and Control Oil Systems for Special Purpose Application

Std. 615 Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment for Refinery Services

Std. 616 Gas Turbines for Refinery Services

Std. 617 Centrifugal Compressors for General Refinery Services

Std. 618 Reciprocating Compressors for General Refinery Services

Std. 619 Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services

Std. 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks

Std. 630 Tube and Header Dimensions for Fired Heaters for Refinery Service

Std. 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage

Std. 660 Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

Std. 661 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

Std. 670 Vibrations, Axial Position, and Bearing-Temperature Monitoring Systems

Std. 671 Special Purpose Couplings for Refinery Service

Std. 674 Positive Displacement Pumps-Reciprocating

Std. 675 Positive Displacement Pumps-Controlled Volume

Std. 676 Positive Displacement Pumps-Rotary

Std. 677 General Purpose Gear Units for Refineries Services

Std. 678 Accelerometer-Base Vibration Monitoring System

Std. 1104 Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities

Std. 2000 Venting Atmospheric and low-Pressure Storage Tanks - Non-Refrigerated and Refrigerated

RP 530 Calculation for Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries

RP 560 Fired Heater for General Refinery Services

RP 682 Shaft Sealing System for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps

RP 1110 Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines

Publ. 941 Steel for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperature and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants

Publ. 2009 Safe Welding and Cutting Practices in Refineries

Publ. 2015 Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks


ASTM

There are numerous American Society for Testing and Materials designations cover the specification of wrought materials, forgings and castings used for plate, fittings, pipe and valves. The ASTM standards are directed to dimensional standards, materials and strength considerations.

Some of the more material standards referenced are:

A 36 Specification for Structural Steel

A 53 Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot –Dipped, Zinc Coated Welded and Seamless

A 105 Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components

A 106 Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service

A 181 Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel for General Purpose Piping

A 182 Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High Temperature Service

A 193 Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature Service

A 194 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure and High Temperature Service

A 234 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperatures

A 333 Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service

A 350 Specification for Forgings, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components

A 352 Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic for Pressure Containing Parts Suitable for Low Temperature Service

A 420 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service

A 694 Specification for Forgings, carbon and Alloy Steel for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves and Parts for High Pressure Transmission Service

A 707 Specifications for Flanges, Forged, Carbon and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service



References

Due to copyright laws, the following figures have not been published here. We leave as an exercise for the user to retrieve these for reference.

Fig 100.1.2(B) of ASME B31.1

Fig 300.1.1 of ASME B31.3 1996

Fig 300.1.1 of ASME B31.3 1999

Fig 400.1.1 of ASME B31.4

Fig 400.1.2 of ASME B31.4

Fig 1.1 of CSA Z 662

Fig 1.2 of CSA Z 662

Table of Contents CSA Z 662

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9 comments :

  1. Thanks for providing the relevant standards applicable for design on pipe and its components.

    Shekar(shekarpithani78@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
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  3. Rohitkumarsharma14March 26, 2012 at 11:20 PM

    thanks ankit

    ReplyDelete
  4. thanks a lot,

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  6. it's amazing,thx a million

    ReplyDelete
  7. Really very usefull info.. Thanks a tonnes

    ReplyDelete

 

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