1. Major Consideration in Plant Layout
|Class of Hazardous||Fire lode (Btu/sq.ft)||Required fire Resistance Rating |
for Fire Walls(hr)
|Laws||0 to 100,000||1|
|Moderate||100,000 to 200,000||2|
|Explosion hazard||Minimum clear space (ft)|
|E1: Minimum, none or slight; consider negligible||None required|
|E2: Moderate; limited to small area; prompt restoration||None required|
|E3: Intermediate; appreciable major equipments||50 ft|
|E4: High; considerable potential or probability; series delays||75 ft|
|E5: Extreme; unpredictable; high potential; disruption||100 ft|
1.8 Futere Expansion
3. Techniques for Layout
4. Details of Techniques for Layout
5. Layout Analogues
2) Block models -These models are chiefly used to develop the plot plan, floor plan, elevation, major equipment and major pipe racks in the correct co-relation with each other.
3) Drawings- for the development and evaluation of the layout it co-relates the basic project information on the equipment and site condition and provides source of data for the final layout.
4) Piping models- for accurate detailed layout of the process piping utility and control facilities.
7. Concept of the Plant Layout
2. Indian Explosives Act
3. Petroleum Act
4. Central / State Pollution Control Board Law
5. Indian Electricity Rules
6. CIVIL aviation rule – National Airports Authority
7. Insurance Association of India – Fire Protection manual.
8. N. F. P. A. Code of Practice.
|The Present Fact||Alternatives||Selection for Development|
|What is achieved?||why ?||what else could be achieved?||what should be achieved?|
|How it is achieved?||Why that way?||How else could it be achieved?||How should it be achieved?|
|When it is achieved?||Why then?||When else could it be achieved?||When should it be achieved?|
|Where is it achieved?||Why there?||Where else could it be achieved?||Where should it be achieved?|
|Who achieves it?||Why that persion?||Who else could achieve it?||Who should achieve it?|
|Stages in the development of the layout||Useful Technique|
1)The layout begins with the collection and assessment of the flow sheet ( which must show material of construction, size of
pipe work and suggested elevation ), equipment data sheets, result of site survey (incorporating relevant data on site boundaries, topography, soil
structure, weather conditions, utility terminals and site access points).
Critical examination is used to
question the elevation
layout assumptions made in
the flow sheet. This method
enables the objectives and
constraints to be defined.
Techniques of correlation
and compatibility are used
to sort and list the various
|2) The cost of each elevation alternation is examined for differences only e.g. in the number of plant items needed to |
achieve the objectives in the material transfer costs such as piping elevation, power consumption.
|Simple elevation drawings |
are prepared for the alter
natives showing heights and
relative positions only of plant
items only, No structure or
floor levels are added yet as
these may depend on plan layout.
|3)Plant items and buildings are laid out in the plan ensuring that all layout constrains (e.g. relating to operation, maintenance, safety costing environment and expansion ) are applied A similar |
costing made of each plan layout is made.
|Critical examination is used |
to question the plan layout
assumptions made in the
defined Once the constraints
are defined Techniques of
correlation and compatibility
are again used to sort and list
the various alternatives.Layout
analogous such as cut outs
help in the visualization of the
layout and in the examination of
plot size and external constraints.
|4) The selected plan and elevation |
layout are now combine to determine the possible positions of supporting and access structures, and to study the civil requirements. These may force the
relaxation of earlier constraints.
|The layout alternative is |
presented by block models.
This stage will help people to
visualise the non-quantifiable
and safety aspects.
|5) Final alternatires are again costed for differences and a selection is made.||The final layout is drawn |
(options may still be left open for detailed study)
|6) Preparation of piping models now commences. These are further used to optimize pipe work .A check should be made that all constraints are obeyed |
particularly those for operation.
|Piping models are now |