Definition of Petroleum as per the Act.
Any liquid hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons or any inflammable mixture (liquid, viscous/solid containing any liquid hydrocarbon.)
Classification of Petroleum : -
This is based on flash point.
Typical petroleum products under each class are given i 11 bracket.
Class A - flash point less than 230C (LPG)
Class B - flash point 23 0C or more but less than 650C (HSD, Kerosene)
Class C - flash point 650C or more but less than 930C (Furnace Oil, LSHS, LSGR)flash point 930C or more -not covered under Act.
Storage of any petroleum product covered under the Act requires storage license. However, some quantities are exempted under section 7 and 8 as given below.
Class A - Not more than 30 tit ( i.e. upto 30 lit)
Class B - Not more than 2500 lit and not more than 1000 lit in the receptacle (container)
Class C - Not more than 45kl (i.e. upto45 kl).
Some relevant rules (R 120 means Rule 120 etc.)
R 120 - All enclosures surrounding above ground tanks to be properly drained, drain valve operation should be possible from outside enclosure.
R 121 - Installation to be protected by surrounding wall or fence at least 1.8m high
R 124 - For storage tank LID ratio should be not more than 1.5 or L=20m. whichever is less(e.g. 4000cub m tank, dia-16m, ht-20 m).
R 127 - All tanks should be provided with proper earthing connection, each tank should have atleast 2 earthing connections, resistance to earth for such connection should be not more than 7 ohms.
R 131 - Plans of installation are to« submitted for prior approval.
R 138 - Minimum distance of 1.5 m to be maintained between tank wall and enclosure.
R 167 - (Major) storage tank to be atleast 90m away from boiler, furnace, still etc. (Any source of open flame), However Furnace Oil lay tank can be installed in boiler house.
R 168 - LPG (major) storage to be minimum 90m away from boiler furnace etc. Further, the same should be minimum 30m away from blending or filling of petroleum.
The Rules specify distances to be maintained between storage Tank and boundary fencing filling point, electric motor (coupled to pump) etc. These distances depend on type of petroleum and quantity stored. Some typical distance are given in Table I below. For specific installation refer rules.
Minimum Distances to be maintained where Class A and Class B petroleum stored exceed 5 KI or dia of tank exceeds 9 m.
Tank Vehicle unloading area
FLP electric motor
Non FLP electric motor
x - means no specific. stipulation under the rules.
1. Prevent static charge build-up.
2. Provide evacuation and inert purging connection for system start-up.
3. Lead safety valve outlet to flare header.
4. Check requirement of inert purging connection in safety valve outlet line.
Documents to be Submitted to Factories Inspector, Extracts from Factories Act 1948 and Maharashtra Factories Rules 1963 and National Building Code:
1.0 - Following documents are to be submitted in duplicate
1.1 - Plot plan – The plot plan to be preferably drawn to scale 1,500 or less (As per MIDC, GIDC requirements)
1.2 - Equipment layout plan; elevation and necessary cross sections of various buildings drawn to scale 1:100 or less with following additional information clearly marked up.
a) Aisles and passage ways to be marked up and width indicated. Minimum width to be 1m.
b) Equipment close to the wall or column clear distance between equipment and wall/ column to be marked. Minimum distance between any machine and wall/column should preferably be 1m.
c) For multi-storey buildings, stairways/ fire escape staitways to be highlighted, for no. and type of stairways, refer rule 70 given in the extracts below.
d) For all power driven machinery, motor Kw to be marked up. The above information should preferably be marked up on reproducible of equipment layout.
2.0 - While deciding equipment layout, following additional requirements to be taken into account:
2.1 - All workroom/ buildings should be not more than 18 m wide with windows on both the outer (longer) walls. If not, provision of efficient forced draught ventilation will be insisted upon in respect of any such workroom/building and details of this viz, capacity of the forced draught fans, resultant air changes per hour proposed to be obtained should be furnished.
2.2 - Minimum height from the floor to the roof of building should be not less than 3.75 m.
2.3 - The height of all rooms for human habitation shall not be less than 2.75 m measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab). In case of air-conditioned rooms, a height of not less than 2.4 m measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point of air-conditioning duct or the false ceiling shall be provided ( as per national building code part III, para 8.2.1).
2.4 - Mezzanine floor (an intermediate floor between two floors, above ground level) should have minimum height of 2.2 m and area restricted to 1/3 of the area of the floor on which it is constructed. The mezzanine floor should not be sub-divided into smaller compartments and should be so constructed as not to interfere under any circumstance with the ventilation of the space over and under it. (As per National Building Code Part III paras, 2.0 and 8.6).
2.5 - Exit Requirements (Extracts from National Building Code Part IV – Fore Protection)
a) Every building to be provided with exits sufficient to permit safe escape of occupants in case of fire or other emergency. All exits shall be free of obstructions and shall be so arranged that they may be reached without passing through another occupied unit.
b) An exit may be a doorway, corridor, passage ways to an internal staircase or external staircase, or to a verandah or terraces which have access to a street or the roof of a building. An exit may also include a horizontal exit leading to an adjoining building. Lifts and escalators are not considered as exits.
c) There shall be not less than two exits serving every floor. In case both are internal stairways at least one of them shall be an enclosed stairway.
d) Every exit door way shall open into an enclosed stairway, a horizontal exit on a corridor or passageway providing continuous and protected means of egress. No exit doorway shall be less than 1 m in width and 2 m in height. They shall open outwards, i.e., away from the room but shall not obstruct the travel along any exit. No door when opened shall reduce the required width of stairway or landing to less than 90 cm.
Exit door shall not open immediately upon a flight of stairs a landing equal to at least the width of the floor shall be provided in the stairway at each doorway, the level of landing shall be same as that of the floor it serves.
3.0 Extracts from Factory Rule (Maharashtra) 1963 Rule 3(1)
An application for obtaining previous permission for the site on which the factory is to be situated and for the construction or extension of a factory shall be made to the Chief Inspector of Factories. Application for such permission shall be made in Form I which shall be accompanied by the following documents:
a) A flow chart of the manufacturing process supplemented by a brief description of the process in its various stages:
b) Plans in duplicate drawn to scale showing:
i. the site of the factory and immediate surroundings including adjacent buildings and other structures roads, drains, etc.
ii. the plan, elevation and necessary cross-sections of the various buildings, indicating all relevant details relating to natural lighting ventilation and means of escape in case of fire. The plans shall also clearly indicate the position of the plant and machinery, aisles and passage ways; and
c) Such other particulars as the Chief Inspector may requires.
Means of Escape in Case of Fire
a) Every factory shall be provided with adequate means of escape in case of fire for the persons employed and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing.
i. Each room of the factory building shall in relation to its size and number of persons employed in it be provided with an adequate number of exits for use in case of fire thought not necessary confined to such use, so positioned that each person will have a reasonably free and unobstructed passage from his work-place to an exit;
ii. No exit intended for use in case of fire shall be less than 90 cm in width or less than 195 cm in height.
iii. In the case of a factory building or part of factory building more than one storey and in which less than 20 persons work at any one time, there shall be provided atleast one substantial stairway permanently constructed either inside or outside the building and which affords direct and unimpeded access to ground level.
iv. In the case of a factory building or part of a factory building in which 20 or more persons work at a time above the level of the ground floor or wherein explosive or highly inflammable materials are used or stored, at least two separate and substantial stairways permanently constructed either inside or outside the building and which afford direct and unimpeded access to ground level.
v. Every stairway in a factory which affords a means of escape in case of fire shall be provided with a substantial hand-rail which if the stairway has an open side shall be on that side and if the stairway has two open sides such hand-rail shall be provided on both sides.
b) In the case of building constructed or converted for use as a factory after the date of the passing of the act, the following additional requirements shall apply:
i. At least one of the stairways provided shall be of fire-resisting materials.
ii. Every hoist-way or lift-way inside a factory building shall be completely enclosed with fire-resisting materials and all means of access to the hoist or life shall be fitted with doors of fire resisting materials.
Provided that any such hoist-way or lift-way shall be enclosed only at the top by some material easily broken by fire or be provided with a went at the top.
iii. No fire escape stair shall be constructed at an angle greater than 450 from the horizontal.
iv. The fire escape stair shall be within 45 m along the line of travel from any part of the floor from which it is meant to provide escape.
v. No stairway shall be less than 90 cms in width.
4.0 Extracts from Factories Act 1948
Floors, stairs and means of access:
In every factory –
a) All floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails;
b) there shall, so far as is reasonably practicable, be provided and maintained safe means of access to every place at which any person is at any time required to work.
c) When any person has to work at a place from where in is likely to fall a distance exceeding 2 m, then unless the place is one which provides secure handhold provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise, the ensure the safety of the person SC working.
Pits, sumps, openings in floors etc.
In every factory, every fixed vessel, sump. tank pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which by reason of its depth, situation, construction or contents, is or may be a source of danger, shall be either securely covered or securely fenced.
The state Government may, by order in writing, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening from compliance with the provisions of this section.
Note: Wherever requirements of factories rules and national building code differ. It should be ensured that minimum requirements of factories inspector are complied with.