Monday, July 16, 2012

Emergency Response Plan in a Refinery and Petrochemical Plants and Various Source of Pollution in Plant

A plant is always designed with safety in mind. As the final layer of design safety, Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are built in which cause shut down of the plant in unsafe situations. SIS is a system composed of sensors, logic solvers, and final control elements for the purpose of taking the process to a safe state when pre-determined conditions are violated.

Elements of An Emergency Response Plan

The owner must develop an emergency response plan for emergencies which must address, the following as a minimum:

· Pre emergency planning and coordination with outside parties
· Emergency command system
· Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and communication in the command system.
· Emergency recognition and prevention
· Safe distance and control
· Emergency medical treatment and first aid.
· Emergency alerting and response procedures
· List of emergency equipment and their location

Emergency response organizations may use the local emergency response plan or the state emergency response plan or both, as part of their emergency response plan to avoid duplication.

Sources of Pollution

Hazardous waste is a waste which because of its physical, chemical or infectious characteristics has the potential to cause harm to human health or the environment when handled, stored, transported, treated or disposed of.

The gaseous emissions, aqueous and gaseous effluents and discharges of hazardous waste materials from operating units are the major sources of pollution are known to have a negative impact on the environment.

The effluents are emitted in three ways:
a. During the processing of oil & gas
b. When we consume them as fuel
c. When we consume the end products

The hydrocarbon industry is thus a major source of pollution in the world. The three parties involved – the industry, the government and the consumers have to partner together to control the effects of pollution.

The Effluents - Oil Well to Petrochemicals

What the governments are doing:

· Stringent product specifications for reducing environment impact by consumption of the product.
· Setting of stringent effluent discharge specifications
· Enacting environment related laws and enforcement

What the industry in doing:

· Investing in technology and treatment plants to meet the specifications
· Improving the processing scheme to reduce pollutant generation
· Development new technologies to treat the effluents

What the consumers can do:

· Reduce wasteful consumption of products
· Reduce wasteful consumption of energy

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