Monday, September 30, 2013

PreStressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) Details

Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) has been manufactured in the United States since 1942. An American Water Works Association (AWWA) tentative standard was developed in 1949 and was made a permanent standard in 1952. Since that time, this standard has been reviewed and updated on a regular basis. PCCP offers the specifier and owner numerous advantages, including ease of installation, custom-designed fittings, superior corrosion resistance, high-flow characteristics, low maintenance costs, and product support by the manufacturer. PCCP is used extensively for a wide range of project types both in the United States and around the world.

There are three other types of concrete pressure pipe: reinforced concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete non-cylinder pipe, and pretensioned concrete cylinder pipe.

Terminology and Definitions:

Spigot Ring — the protruding end of a PCCP joint which contains a shaped groove to retain the O-ring rubber gasket (refer to Fig. A)

Spigot ring
Spigot Ring

Bell Ring — the receiving portion of a PCCP joint (refer to Fig. B)
Bell Ring
Bell Ring
O-ring Gasket — rubber ring of circular cross-section which, when compressed into the spigot-ring groove by the bell ring, provides a water-tight seal

Laying length — a measure of a pipe or fitting’s length along its axis for purposes of advancing the length of a pipeline

Working pressure — the long-term, steady-state internal pressure

Transient pressure — the incremental change in internal pressure in a pipeline, which is usually of short duration, that is caused by a relatively sudden change in flow velocity

Field test pressure — an internal pressure applied to a pipeline or portion of a pipeline to test its structural
and water-tight performance

External dead load — an applied load to a pipe which is generally constant, such as earth weight,
foundation loads, and so on

External live load — an applied load to a pipe which is transient in nature and usually of short duration, such as motor vehicles

Applications for Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe

PCCP is the most widely used type of concrete pressure pipe for the transport of water and wastewater in the United States and the world. Uses include raw and potable water transmission lines, water distribution systems, gravity and pressure sewers, power plant cooling systems, industrial process lines, water and wastewater treatment plant process lines, sewer outfalls, raw water intakes, and impoundmentdam spillway conduits. 

It is a versatile pipe that can be installed in the normal direct-buried condition; as an aerial crossing over canals, rivers, and other obstacles; or subaqueously in both freshwater and seawater.

Reference Standards

Table A summarizes the standards covering the design and manufacture of PCCP. The AWWA standards in Table A8.1 include reference to other standards published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Concrete Institute (ACI), American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), American Welding Society (AWS), and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
Table A:

 Title  Purpose
American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association C301 Prestressed Concrete Pressure, Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type Covers the manufacturing process for PCCP, including raw material specifications, manufacturing techniques, and testing procedures.
American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association C304 Design of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe Covers the design process for PCCP
American Water Works Association Manual of Water Supply Practices ‘‘M9—Concrete Pressure Pipe’’ Provides general information regarding the design, manufacturing, and use of PCCP. Also includes information on the other types of concrete pressure pipe: reinforced cylinder pipe, reinforced noncylinder pipe, and pretensioned concrete cylinder pipe.

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