Table of Contents:
Basic Equations, INon-Newtonian Fluids, 5Velocity Heads, 8Pipe Flow Geometries, 22Comoressible Flow. 25Piping Fluid Mechanics Problem Formulation, 25Example 1-1: Friction Pressure Drop for a Hydrocarbon Gas-Steam Mixture in a Pipe, 27Example 1-2: Frictional Ptessure Drop for a Hot Oil System of a Process Thnk, 33Example 1-3: Friction Pressure Drop for a Waste Heat Recovery System, 42Example 1-4: Pressure Drop in Relief Valve Piping System, 43Notation, 45References, 45
Piping Criteria, 47Primary and Secondary Stresses, 49
Allowable stress Range for Secondary Stresses.
Flexibility and Stiffness of Piping Systems, 52
Stiffness Method Advantages. Flexibility
Stiffness Method and Large Piping, 58Flexibility Method of Piping Mechanics. Pipe
PiD- e Restraints and Anchors. 68
Pipe Lug Supports. Spfing Supports. Expansion Joints. Pre-stressed Piping.
Fluid Forces Exerted on Piping Systems, 81Extraneous Piping Loads, 83Example 2-l: Applying the Stiffness Method to a Modular Skid-Mounted Gas Liquefaction Facility,88Example 2-2: Applying the Flexibility Method to a Steam Turbine Exhaust Line, 95Example 2-3: Flexibility Analysis for Hot Oil Piping,96Example 2-42 Lug Design, 98Example 2-5: Relief Valve Piping System, 99Example 2-61 Wind-Induced Vibrations of Piping, 100Notation, 101References, 101
Jacketed Pipe versus Traced Pipe, 103Tracing Piping Systems, 106
Traced Piping without Heat Tmnsfer Cement.
Traced Piping with Heat Transfer Cement.
Condensate Return. Jacketed Pipe. Vessel and
Equipment Traced Systems.Heat Transfer in Residual Systems, 132
Heat Transfer through Cylindrical Shells. Residual Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoes.
Example 3-1: Steam Tracing Design, 136Example 3-2: Hot Oil Tracing Design, 137Example 3-3: Jacketed Pipe Design, 139Example 3-4: Thermal Evaluation of a Process Thnk, 140Example 3-5: Thermal Design of a Process Tank, 142
Internal Baffle Plates Film Coefficient. Film
Coefficient External to Baffles-Forced
Convection. Heat Duty of Internal Vessel
Plates. Outside Heat Transfer Jacket Plates.Heat Duty of Jacket Plates Clamped to BottomVessel Head. Total Heat Duty of Tank.
Example 3-6: Transient and Static Heat Transfer Design, 148
Static Heat Transfer Analysis. Total Heat
Removal. Water Required for Cooling.
Transient Hear Transfer Analysis.
Example 3-7: Heat Transfer through Vessel Skirts, 152Example 3-E: Residual Heat Transfer, 154Example 3-9: Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoe, 156Notation, 156References, 157
Vessels ... . ..... 159Designing for Internal Pressure, 159Designing for External Pressure, 160Design of Horizontal Pressure Vessels, 166
Longitudinal Bending Stresses. Location of Saddle Supports. Wear Plate Design. Zick
Steel Saddle Plate Design, 174Saddle Bearing Plate Thickness, 180Design of Self-Supported Vertical Vessels, 180Minimum Shell Thickness Reouired for Combined Loads, 181Support Skirt Design, 183Anchor Bolts, 184Base Plate Thickness Design, 186Compression Ring and Gusset Plate Design, 189Anchor Bolt Torque, 189Whd Aralysis of Towers, 190Wind Design Speeds. Wind-Induced Moments.Wind-Induced Deflections of Towers. l ind-Induced Vibrations on Tall Towers.Ovaling. Criteda for Vibration Analysis.Seismic Design of Tall Towers, 209Vertical Distribution of Shear Forces.Tower Shell Discontinuities and Conical Sections, 1t iExanple 4-l: Wear Plate Requirement Analysis, 215Example 12: Mechanical Design of Process Column. 215
Section moments of Inertial tower Section
Stress Calcularions. Skirt and Base Plate
Design- Section Centroids. Vortex-Induced
vibrarion. Equivalent Diameter Approachversus - ANSI A58.1- 1982.
Example 4-3: Seismic Analysis of a Vertical Tower, 237Example 44: Vibration Analysis for Tower with Large Vortex-Induced Displacements, 241
Moments of Inertia. Wind Deflections.
Example 4-5: Saddle Plate Analysis of a Horizontal Vessel, 249Saddle Plate Buckling Analysis. Horizontal Reaction Force on Saddle.Notation,252References,254