Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Gail - Indian Speed Star - An Initiative to Strengthen the Sport of Athletics

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GAIL (India) Limited has embarked on a grassroots athletics program GAIL-Indian Speedstar, which is aimed at unearthing young talent across the length and breadth of India. GAIL (India) Limited and National Yuva Cooperative Society (NYCS), launched a grassroots athletics program GAIL Indian Speedstar on the 22nd of March, 2016 at the Constitution Club of India, New Delhi.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Download Piping and Mechanical Handbook

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The following generic procedures related to the control of Piping and Mechanical work activities
are typical of the types of Generic Construction Project Procedures that are available:
  • Underground Piping Installation
  • Above Ground Piping Installation
  • Field Fabrication of Pipe Spools
  • Pressure Testing of Piping
  • Insulation Installation
  • Rotating Equipment
  • Column, Vessel, Tank, and Exchanger Installation
  • Boilers and Fired Heaters
Additional generic procedures related to Piping and Mechanical work operations are available on
the On-Line Reference Library.


The Piping or Mechanical Field Engineer is a direct contributor to the safety of the work operations at the construction site. Since all safe work operations must begin with preplanning, the Field Engineer makes a direct contribution to safety by reviewing the planned work with safety in mind. The Field Engineer is typically responsible to develop a detailed work package for work planned by the Superintendent, verify the required materials are available and obtain the required permits to perform the work. The following specific types of questions might be asked by the Field Engineer to ensure the work can be done safely:

  • How will the materials get to the work location? Can preassembly be done to avoid performing work in tight or cramped quarters?
  • Does the work require the use of hazardous materials? Are MSDS sheets available at the site for all materials that are required to be used?
  • Have all the required permits (e.g. confined space entry permits) been obtained to allow the work to be performed? Are there any special requirements that supervision or the craft need to be aware of prior to starting the work?
  • Have all special equipment tagging requirements been satisfied?
  • Are all the required materials available on the site? Have the materials been inspected for damage or flaws that might cause injury during installation?
  • Has a thorough review for potential underground obstructions such as existing utilities, energized electrical cables and process lines been performed prior to authorizing the work to proceed?
  • Is the proposed work site free of potential fire hazards? Is the housekeeping adequate?
  • Are trenches or excavations adequately sloped or shored? Is a special shoring design required due to the depth or location of the excavation or trench?
  • Have required rigging plans been prepared and approved? Have the requirements of the approved rigging plan been reviewed with the craft who will perform the work?
  • Is the scaffolding required to perform the work properly erected? Is a special scaffold design required to access the work location?

Piping and Mechanical Handbook Contents


Download Piping and Mechanical Handbook

Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Why is Recession Back? Have You Lost Your Job in Oil & Gas Industry?

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Last year, our Oil & Gas was in a great boom phase, and there were lots of projects coming with vacancies filling up. We (in board meetings) every few months were being told and assured that work is coming and lots of it. Indeed, we had a pile of backlog always in work, and 2016 looked so promising to us. But then all of a sudden, at the pace we had work coming got slow. Rumours started that company has taken out some contractual and much more. Although none of them was real, until 2016 started. Suddenly company started running out of work or had existing tasks to complete quickly before that goes out of hand too. Does that call for Recession? At least for me, Yes!

Why is Recession Back?

A slump is petroleum industry is not a new thing we may hear. We have seen these before, like in 2009-2010 and now after five years, its back. The only difference between the previous and the current one is, this slump is affecting jobs worldwide. While the production rate has not slowed down, the requirement of Oil is going flat or dropping. Of course, time will come when the markets stabilize, and prices of Oil may rise again.  But this time, I think it'll be slow, and there are many Geopolitical issues which first needs to be resolved.

Image Source: CNN

Saturday, January 9, 2016

[PDF] Design Guidelines for Safety in Piping Networks

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When compared to other equipment in a hydrocarbon processing plant, the piping network is designed to the most stringent standards. Mechanical Engineering codes require a 400% safety factor in the design of these systems. The piping system is normally considered the safest part of the plant. However, even with this level of safety, reviews of catastrophic accidents show that piping system failures represent that largest percentage of equipment failures.

Since these systems are responsible for many catastrophic accidents, operations, design, and maintenance personnel should understand the potential safety concerns. The best tool that we have to prevent future accidents is to review past incidents and incorporate lessons learned into future design and operation of piping systems.

This paper will discuss various case studies that will help to illustrate the consequences of inappropriate design, operation, and maintenance of piping systems. The case studies include:

1) Check valve failures
2) Small bore piping in compressor discharge piping, 
3) Low temperature embitterment, and 
4) Hot tapping safety issues and hot tap shavings concerns.

Check Valve Failures

Check valves are important safety devices in piping. Check valves have been utilized in the process industry for many years to keep material from flowing the wrong way and causing operational or safety concerns. One common mistake is installing the check valve backwards and blocking the process flow. There is normally an arrow on the check valve designating the proper flow direction, indicating the proper installation position. There have been cases where the manufacturer showed the arrow incorrectly, which greatly hindered troubleshooting.

Continue reading in the embedded PDF....

Design Guidelines for Safety in Piping Networks

Friday, December 11, 2015

[PPT] Download Design & Construction of Piping Systems

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To know piping design basics by going through the following points:
  • Design of pressure components.
  • Pipe Span calculations.
  • Design of pipe supports & hangers.
  • Stiffness & flexibility.
  • Expansion & stresses.
  • Line expansion & flexibility.
  • Supports & anchorage of piping.

Design of pressure piping

Many decisions need be made in the design phase to achieve this successful operation, including:

- Required process fluid quantity.
- Optimum pressure-temperature.
- Piping material selection.
- Insulation selection (tracing).
- Stress & nozzle load determination.
- Pipe support standard.

The codes provide minimal assistance with any of these decisions as the codes are not design manuals.

Design of pressure components

  • Pipe Structure “static” design, not Layout design.
  • Limitations: Code, Pressure, Temperature, How long is the plant lifetime, What is the plant reliability, etc..
  • Piping designed according to B31.3 has less lifetime than B31.1 due to lower F.S.
  • Reliability of piping under B31.1 should be higher than B31.3
  • Given that the code is a product of pressure technology, one of the concerns is the pressure-temperature ratings of the components.
  • Each system be it vessel or piping has some base pressure-temperature rating. This is essentially the pressure temperature rating of the weakest member of the system. This can be translated that no minor component (valve, flange, etc) shall be the weakest link.
  • The key components of the design conditions are the design pressure and the design temperature.
  • Design pressure is defined as the most severe sustained pressure which results in the greatest component thickness and the highest component pressure rating.
  • Design temperature is defined as the sustained pipe metal temperature representing the most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature.
  • Thus we can try to simplify our stresses into two main categories;
  • Pressure stress is the circumferential stress (primary stress) or hoop stress, which is known to be not self limiting.
  • Temperature stress is the shear or bending stress (Secondary stress), known to be self limiting.
  • In addition VIBRATION, has to be addressed as low cycle high stress named as “thermal expansion cycles”, represented by f=1 for 7000 cycles, otherwise detailed design has to be performed to prove that the pipe will withstand high cycle, low stress loads.

Design of pressure components Wall Thickness Calculation

The code assists the designer in determining adequate pipe wall thickness for a given material and design conditions as follows:

- Calculate the pressure design thickness “t”

- Add the mechanical corrosion and erosion allowances “c” to obtain the thickness tm=t+c

- Add mill tolerance (MT) to tm, then select the next commercially available wall thickness.

- Provided t

[PPT] Design & Construction of Piping Systems

Overview of Process Plant Piping System Design by Carmagen Engineering

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This course provides an overview of process plant piping system design. It discusses requirements contained in ASME B31.3, Process Piping, plus additional requirements and guidelines based on common industry practice. The information contained in this course is readily applicable to on-the-job applications, and prepares participants to take more extensive courses if appropriate.

What is a piping system

A piping system conveys fluid from one location to another. Within a process plant, the locations are typically one or more equipment items (e.g., pumps, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, process heaters, etc.), or individual process plants that are within the boundary of a process facility.

A piping system consists of:

  • Pipe sections
  • Fittings (e.g., elbows, reducers, branch connections, etc.)
  • Flanges, gaskets, and bolting
  • Valves
  • Pipe supports and restraints

Each individual component plus the overall system must be designed for the specified design conditions.

Scope of ASME B31.3

ASME B31.3 specifies the design, materials, fabrication, erection, inspection, and testing requirements for process plant piping systems. Process plants include petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related process plants and terminals.

ASME B31.3 applies to piping and piping components that are used for all fluid services, not just hydrocarbon services. These include the following:
  • Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals.
  • Petroleum products.
  • Gas, steam, air, and water.
  • Fluidized solids.
  • Refrigerants.
  • Cryogenic fluids.
The scope also includes piping that interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged-equipment assembly.

The following are excluded from the scope of ASME B31.3:
  • Piping systems for internal gauge pressures at or above zero but less than 15 psi, provided that the fluid is nonflammable, nontoxic, and not damaging to human tissue, and its design temperature is from -20°F through 366°F.
  • Power boilers that are designed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and external boiler piping that must conform to ASME B31.1.
  • Tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds that are located inside a fired heater enclosure.
  • Pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, and other fluid-handling or processing equipment. This includes both internal piping and connections for external piping.

Overview of Process Plant Piping System Design by Carmagen Engineering

Thursday, December 10, 2015

Piping Design Data Book by Hyundai

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Here's the content of the book:
  • Reference codes for piping design
  • Pressure Temperature Ratings
  • Hydrostatic Test Pressure for all material group
  • Non-destructive examination of Fabricated Pipe Welds
  • End Preparation for Welding
  • Installed Cost of Corrosion Resistant Piping
  • Relative Carrying Capacity of Pipe for Water
  • Relative Carrying Capacity of Pipe for Air, Steam and Gas
  • COADE STRESS ANALYSIS SEMINAR NOTES by COADE: Must have tutorial guide for every piping stress engineer using CAESAR II. Explains in details all the basics of Caesar II application.
  • PIPING HANDBOOK by M L Nayyar: One good book for both stress and layout engineers with huge important database on piping engineering. Refer this book for any data you require during your day to day piping works.
  • PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN by Rhea and Parisher: The best book for a beginner. Covers the basics in simple language. Very easy to understand.
  • PROCESS PLANT LAYOUT AND PIPING DESIGN by Hunt and Bausbacher: The best book for a piping layout engineer. Covers the basics of piping layout. Most of the preliminary layout ideas connected to any equipment evolves from this book. So read this book attentively for effective layout knowledge.

Piping Design Data Book by Hyundai

Engineering Specification of Piping Design By Toyo Engineering

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This specification covers general requirements concerning process and utility piping systems which may be included in the plant constructed by Toyo Engineering India Ltd (hereinafter referred to as PMC).


The extent of piping systems to which this specification is to be applied, shall be as indicated on the applicable piping and instrument flow diagrams (hereinafter referred to as P&I), and utility flow diagrams (hereinafter referred to as UFD). However, piping systems which are furnished as a regular part of proprietary or standardized equipment (or package unit) may be in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's standards.

Instrument piping/tubing systems from the first fitting or block valve on the piping systems shall not be covered by this specification.

The requirements for inspections and tests of piping materials, and other requirements for piping construction are not specified in this specification.

Specific Job Requirements

Specific Job Requirements which are attached to this specification cover modifications to this specification and Customer's special or local requirements as well as specific job data pertinent to this specification. Where Specific Job Requirements are in contradiction to this specification, Specific Job Requirements shall govern.

Codes and Standards

Piping systems and piping materials shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with the applicable codes and standards.


Unless otherwise specified, metric, degree Celsius and kilogram units shall be applied, but nominal sizes of piping shall be in accordance with inch system (NPS). The units and numerical values given in [ ] in this specification are based on the International System of Units (SI) and are appended for reference.

Related Engineering Specifications

H-100 "Plant Layout"
H-103 "Piping Materials"
H-107 "Steam Tracing Piping"
L-101 "Thermal Insulation Design"

Piping Design Basis

Design of piping systems and materials shall be in accordance with this specification and ASME Code for "CHEMICAL PLANT AND PETROLEUM REFINERY PIPING" B31.3 & “POWER PIPING”B 31.1, unless otherwise specified in the applicable codes and standards.

Design Pressure and Temperature

(1) The design pressures and temperatures shall be determined, considering start-up, shutdown conditions and other requirements for safety as well as normal operating conditions.

(2) Design conditions for piping systems shall be summarized in "Line Schedule".

Piping Materials

(1) All piping materials shall conform to the requirements of ASTM.

(2) Materials to other national standards such as BS, DIN, JIS etc, or special materials not covered in codes and standards may be applied with approval by PMC.

(3) Detail specifications of piping materials shall be in accordance with Engineering Specification H-103 "Piping Materials".

(4) Piping material shall be properly marked for easy identification, Procedure for the same to established by LSTK contractor for marking of piping material and the shall be approved by TEIL/Owner.

Engineering Specification of Piping Design By Toyo Engineering

Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Samsung Piping Design Manual of Pump Piping

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Purpose and Application Scope

The purpose of this manual is to increase efficiency and establish standards for design by providing the basic concept necessary for piping design and the criteria for detailed design relevant to pump on the plant which is designed and/or constructed by Samsung Engineering Co., Ltd. The scope included in this manual is for the normal pumps under room temperature, and it shall not be used for special pumps.

Relevant Manuals and Standards

1.2.1 Relevant to pump layout decision criteria

(1) SEM-2002 "Plant Layout Standard (for Chemical Plant)"

1.2.2 Relevant to pump surroundings piping

(1) SEM-3039 "Piping Design Criteria"
(2) SEM-3016 "Piping Flexibility Analysis"
(3) API 610 "Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service"
(4) API 686 "Recommended Practice for Machinery Installation and Installation Design"

1.2.3 Relevant to pump surroundings support

(1) SEM-3040 "Pipe Hanging No.1 (Piping Hanging Manual)"
(2) SEM-3043 "Pipe Support Design Data"

1.3 Basic Concept

1.3.1 Definition of pump

Pump is a device which give pressure to fluid passing through it and discharges the
fluid to the outside.

Samsung Piping Design Manual of Pump Piping

Monday, November 30, 2015

Mechanical Design of Process Systems-Vol 1 by A.Keith Escoe (Piping & Pressure Vessels)

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This book's purpose is to show how to apply mechanical engineering concepts to process system design. Process systems are common to a wide variety of industries including petrochemical processing, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing, power generation (including cogeneration), ship building, and even the aerospace industry. The book is based on years of proven, successful practice, and almost all of the examples described are from process systems now in operation.

While practicality is probably its key asset, this first volume contains a unique collection ofvaluable information, such as velocity head data; comparison ofthe flexibility and stiffness methods of pipe stress analyses; analysis of heat transfer through pipe supports and vessel skirts; a comprehensive method on the design of horizontal vessel saddles as well as a method to determine when wear plates are required; detailed static and dynamic methods of tower design considering wind gusts, vortex-induced vibration and seismic analysis of towers; and a comparative synopsis of the various national wind cooes.

Topics include.d in the text are considered to be those typically encountered in engineering practice. Therefore, because most mechanical systems involve single phase flow, two-phase flow is not covered. Because of its ubiquitous coverage in the literature, flange design is also excluded in this presentation. Since all of the major pressure vessel codes thoroughly discuss and illustrate the phenomenon of external pressure, this subject is only mentioned briefly.

This book is not intended to be a substitute or a replacement of any accepted code or standard. The reader is strongly encouraged to consult and be knowledgeable of any accepted standard or code that may govern. It is felt that this book is a valuable supplement to any standard or code used.

The book is slanted toward the practices of the ASME vessel and piping codes. In one area of vessel design the British Standard is favored because it nrovides excellent technical information on Zick rings. The book is written to be useful regardless of which code or standard is used.

The intent is not to be heavily prejudiced toward any standard, but to discuss the issue-engineering. If one feels that a certain standard or code should be mentioned, please keep in mind that there are others who may be using different standards and it is impossible to discuss all of them.

The reader's academic level is assumed to be a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering, but engineers with bachelor of science degrees in civil, chemical, electrical, or other engineering disciplines should have little difficulty with the book, provided, of course, that they have received adequate academic training or experience.

Junior or senior undergraduate engineering students should find the book a useful introduction to the application of mechanical engineering to process systems. Professors should find the book a helpful reference (and a source for potential exam problems), as well as a practical textbook for junior-, senior-, or graduate level courses in the mechanical, civil, or chemical engineering fields. The book can also be used to supplement an introductory level textbook.

The French philosopher Voltaire once said, "Common sense is not very common," and unfortunately, this is sometimes the case in engineering. Common sense is often the by-product of experience, and while both are essential to sound engineering practice, neither can be learned from books alone. It is one ofthis book's eoats to unite these three elements of "book learning," common sense, and experience to give the novice a better grasp of engineering principles and procedures, and serve as a
practical design reference for the veteran engineer.

Finally, I wish to thank Dr. John J. McKetta, professor of chemical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, who had many helpful comments, suggestions, and words of encouragement. I also wish to thank other engineering faculty members at the University of Texas at Austin for their comments. I must exDress thanks to Larry D. Briggs for reviewing some calculations in Chapter 4; and last, but certainly not least, I wish to express gratitude to William J. Lowe and Timothy W. Calk
of Gulf Publishing Company, whose hard work and patience made this book possible.

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1
Piping Fluid Mechanics ........... 1
Basic Equations, I
Non-Newtonian Fluids, 5
Velocity Heads, 8
Pipe Flow Geometries, 22
Comoressible Flow. 25
Piping Fluid Mechanics Problem Formulation, 25
Example 1-1: Friction Pressure Drop for a Hydrocarbon Gas-Steam Mixture in a Pipe, 27
Example 1-2: Frictional Ptessure Drop for a Hot Oil System of a Process Thnk, 33
Example 1-3: Friction Pressure Drop for a Waste Heat Recovery System, 42
Example 1-4: Pressure Drop in Relief Valve Piping System, 43
Notation, 45
References, 45
Chapter 2
The Engineering Mechanics of Piping .,...47
Piping Criteria, 47
Primary and Secondary Stresses, 49

Allowable stress Range for Secondary Stresses.

Flexibility and Stiffness of Piping Systems, 52

Stiffness Method Advantages. Flexibility

Method Advantages.

Stiffness Method and Large Piping, 58
Flexibility Method of Piping Mechanics. Pipe


PiD- e Restraints and Anchors. 68

Pipe Lug Supports. Spfing Supports. Expansion Joints. Pre-stressed Piping.

Fluid Forces Exerted on Piping Systems, 81
Extraneous Piping Loads, 83
Example 2-l: Applying the Stiffness Method to a Modular Skid-Mounted Gas Liquefaction Facility,88
Example 2-2: Applying the Flexibility Method to a Steam Turbine Exhaust Line, 95
Example 2-3: Flexibility Analysis for Hot Oil Piping,96
Example 2-42 Lug Design, 98
Example 2-5: Relief Valve Piping System, 99
Example 2-61 Wind-Induced Vibrations of Piping, 100
Notation, 101
References, 101
Chapter 3
Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment ... 103
Jacketed Pipe versus Traced Pipe, 103
Tracing Piping Systems, 106

Traced Piping without Heat Tmnsfer Cement.

Traced Piping with Heat Transfer Cement.

Condensate Return. Jacketed Pipe. Vessel and

Equipment Traced Systems.
Heat Transfer in Residual Systems, 132

Heat Transfer through Cylindrical Shells. Residual Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoes.

Example 3-1: Steam Tracing Design, 136
Example 3-2: Hot Oil Tracing Design, 137
Example 3-3: Jacketed Pipe Design, 139
Example 3-4: Thermal Evaluation of a Process Thnk, 140
Example 3-5: Thermal Design of a Process Tank, 142

Internal Baffle Plates Film Coefficient. Film

Coefficient External to Baffles-Forced

Convection. Heat Duty of Internal Vessel

Plates. Outside Heat Transfer Jacket Plates.
Heat Duty of Jacket Plates Clamped to Bottom
Vessel Head. Total Heat Duty of Tank.

Example 3-6: Transient and Static Heat Transfer Design, 148

Static Heat Transfer Analysis. Total Heat

Removal. Water Required for Cooling.

Transient Hear Transfer Analysis.

Example 3-7: Heat Transfer through Vessel Skirts, 152
Example 3-E: Residual Heat Transfer, 154
Example 3-9: Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoe, 156
Notation, 156
References, 157

Chapter 4
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
Vessels ... . ..... 159
Designing for Internal Pressure, 159
Designing for External Pressure, 160
Design of Horizontal Pressure Vessels, 166

Longitudinal Bending Stresses. Location of Saddle Supports. Wear Plate Design. Zick

Stiffening Rings.

Steel Saddle Plate Design, 174
Saddle Bearing Plate Thickness, 180
Design of Self-Supported Vertical Vessels, 180
Minimum Shell Thickness Reouired for Combined Loads, 181
Support Skirt Design, 183
Anchor Bolts, 184
Base Plate Thickness Design, 186
Compression Ring and Gusset Plate Design, 189
Anchor Bolt Torque, 189
Whd Aralysis of Towers, 190
Wind Design Speeds. Wind-Induced Moments.
Wind-Induced Deflections of Towers. l ind-Induced Vibrations on Tall Towers.
Ovaling. Criteda for Vibration Analysis.
Seismic Design of Tall Towers, 209
Vertical Distribution of Shear Forces.
Tower Shell Discontinuities and Conical Sections, 1t i
Exanple 4-l: Wear Plate Requirement Analysis, 215
Example 12: Mechanical Design of Process Column. 215

Section moments of Inertial tower Section

Stress Calcularions. Skirt and Base Plate

Design- Section Centroids. Vortex-Induced

vibrarion. Equivalent Diameter Approach
versus - ANSI A58.1- 1982.

Example 4-3: Seismic Analysis of a Vertical Tower, 237
Example 44: Vibration Analysis for Tower with Large Vortex-Induced Displacements, 241

Moments of Inertia. Wind Deflections.

Example 4-5: Saddle Plate Analysis of a Horizontal Vessel, 249
Saddle Plate Buckling Analysis. Horizontal Reaction Force on Saddle.


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