Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Piping and Pipeline Assessment Guide

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Piping and Pipeline Assessment Guide

This book is written to be an assessment guide from the plant engineering, pipeline engineering and operations perspective. It is intended to serve as a guide for the practicing plant and pipeline engineer, operations personnel, and central engineering groups in operating companies. It will serve as a helpful guide for those in the engineering and construction companies to provide insight to plant and pipeline operations from their client’s eyes and to writing specifications and procedures. It also will offer engineering students a perspective about plant and pipeline operations for a more productive career. Also the book will be a helpful guide for plant and pipeline inspectors who are so critical to the satisfactory operation of plant and pipeline facilities. The role and function of inspectors cannot be over emphasized.

The book is a fitness-for-service guide with emphasis on remediation of piping and pipelines containing flaws. The book is divided into eight chapters.

Chapter 1 is about the basic concepts of fitness-for-service based on the work of the great pioneer Dr. John F. Kiefner and others who developed the field in the 1960s. The field of fracture mechanics was in its early stages of development, but the work by Kiefner, et al., served to translate the theory into practical use in pipelines.

Chapter 2 is about the ASME piping and pipeline codes and the basic equations.

Chapter 3 is fitness-for-service based on the API RP 579 with emphasis on local thin areas, plain dents, dents-gouges, grooves, and crack-like flaws for piping. The methodology of the API 579 is reorganized into methodology that simplifies the assessment for the practitioner. In Chapter 3, there is an extensive discussion about mechanical damage mechanisms.

Chapter 4 is about the concerns of brittle fracture and how to assess it. After the basic fitness-for-service for piping is presented.

Piping and Pipe Support System Design and Engineering

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Piping and Pipe Support System Design and Engineering

Here's a read on:
  • Piping Systems & Power plant evolution
  • Codes, Standards and Regulations
  • Technical Piping Documentation
  • Overview of Pipe Stress Requirements
  • Piping Design Loads
  • Pipe Support Hardware
  • Piping Support design process
  • Manual calculation methods
  • Computer applications for design and analysis

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Design of Process Equipment

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The design of process equipment such as shell-and-tube heat exchangers, pressure vessels and storage tanks requires a familiarity with a variety of sources of design data and procedures. The purpose of this book is to consolidate the scatter€d literature and present the material in simplified form so that it can be easily applied to design problems. Typical examples have been included to illustrate the application of the relationships and procedures presented in the text. Therefore, the designer should find this book to be a convenient and useful reference.

This book is based upon the author's several years of design experience and extensive research into previously published literature. The topics presented were selected based upon the problems most frequently encountered by the author,

ASTM Dictionary of Engineering and Technology

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Following is a list of committees whose terminology standards appear in the ASTM Dictionary of Engineering Science& Technology, 10th Edition. The title of each committee is also included.


  • Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys
  • Iron Castings
  • Metallic-Coated Iron and Steel Products
  • Magnetic Properties
  • Electrical Conductors
  • Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
  • Copper and Copper Alloys
  • Light Metals and Alloys
  • Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
  • Metal Powders and Metal Powder Products
  • Cement
  • Chemical-Resistant Nonmetallic Materials
  • Vitrified Clay Pipe
  • Lime
  • Refractories
  • Concrete and Concrete Aggregates
  • Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems
  • Mortars and Grouts for Unit Masonry
  • Concrete Pipe

Thursday, June 4, 2015

Dictionary of Engineering (2nd Edition)

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Dictionary of Engineering (2nd Edition)

Fields and Their Scope

building construction — The technology of assembling materials into a structure, especially one designated for occupancy.

chemical engineering — A branch of engineering which involves the design and operation of chemical plants.

civil engineering — The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, for transportation, for use and control of water, for occupancy, and for harbor facilities.

control systems — The study of those systems in which one or more outputs are forced to change in a desired manner as time progresses.

Sunday, May 31, 2015

[Excel] Piping Slide Chart Notes

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Here's an excel file i found online which helps in finding dimensions of Butt welded, socket welded flanges, valves, olets and bolting. It also include Pipe thickness chart, pipe sizing chart and computed weights. It's quiet an old excel yet seems to be very useful for pipers. Here are some point about it:

1. Cells shaded in green denote component and piping weights. reducer weights are only for the size indicated.

2. Cells shaded in cyan relate to fig. 8/blank and spacer thicknesses. 

3. No responsibilty will be accepted for any errors occuring from the use of the data obtained from this spreadsheet. 

4. Future modifications/updates are planned such as inclusion of valve weights.

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

PDMS Video Tutorials (A Series of Videos to Learn PDMS from Scratch)

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Here are a series of videos of PDMS tutorials to watch and learn. Someone has done the 'job well done' work in making these videos well and here's my thumbs up for the video maker of these videos. These videos shall help you in gaining an expertise in equipment as well as pipe routing and modelling.

Design of Gates and Ladders Using PDMS

Design of a Stairs on Structures Using PDMS

Monday, May 4, 2015

ASME B31.3 Nonmetallic Process Piping

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Nonmetallic Piping

  • General
  • Design, Fabrication, and Installation for
  • Thermoplastics
  • Reinforced thermosetting resins
  • Reinforced concrete
  • Vitrified clay
  • Borosilicate glass
  • Piping lined with nonmetals
  • Limitations

Trend toward the use of nonmetals is increasing

Nonmetals are used when the metallic alternative is judged to be too expensive

Allowances for variations of pressure and temperature described are not permitted for nonmetallic piping

Increased allowable stresses for occasional loads are not permitted


Materials that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling

• Pipe is extruded
• Fittings are usually injection molded, but sometimes fabricated
• Valve parts are usually injection molded

Commonly used thermoplastics

ABS - Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
CPVC - Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
FEP - Perfluoro ethylene propylene
(HD)PE (High density) polyethylene
PFA - Polyperfluoroalkoxy Alkane
PP - Polypropylene
PVC - Polyvinyl chloride
PVDF - Polyvinylidene fluoride


Tuesday, March 17, 2015

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Inspection, Examination and Testing

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Inspection, Examination and Testing

  • Inspection
  • Examination
  • Methods
  • Requirements
  • Acceptance Criteria
  • Leak Testing
  • Methods
  • Requirements


The owner’s inspector:
  • Verifies that all required examinations and testing have been completed
  • Has access to any place where work is being performed
  • Must be independent of organizations performing fabrication, examination, installation or testing
  • Must have 10 years experience or 5 years experience plus an engineering degree


Examination applies to quality control functions performed by the manufacturer (for components only), fabricator, or erector. Reference in this Code to an examiner is to a person who performs quality control examinations.

The examiner:

  • Examines piping in accordance with Code requirements
  • Examines piping is accordance with additional requirements described in the engineering design
  • Prepares suitable examination records for use by the inspector
  • Shall have training and experience commensurate with the needs of the specified examinations
Examination is performed in order to assure that:
  • Components conform to the specifications for
• Material of construction
• Design
• Freedom from defects
Piping is installed with the proper
• Support
• Alignment
• Joint assembly
Discontinuities are sufficiently small that they don’t grow into leaks during operation

Examination Methods

Examination methods include
  • Visual (VT)
  • Positive Material Identification (PMI)
  • Liquid Dye Penetrant (PT)
  • Magnetic Particle (MT)
  • Radiography (RT)
  • Ultrasonic (UT)
  • In-Process

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Fabrication and Installation

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Fabrication and Installation

Fabrication and Installation

  • Welder/Brazer Qualification
  • Welding Processes
  • Weld Preparation
  • Typical Welds
  • Preheating & Heat Treatment
  • Typical Owner Added Requirements
  • Installation
  • Flange Joints

Welder Qualification

Welders are required to use an approved procedure in accordance with B&PV Code Section IX
  • Prepare the welding procedure specification (WPS)
  • Essential variables (P-no., thickness, PWHT, etc.)
  • Nonessential variables (Groove design, position, technique, etc)
  • Procedure Qualification Test – to determine that weldment is capable of having required properties.
  • Test of procedure, not welder (normally done by good welders)
  • Must pass tensile test and bend test
  • May be required to pass supplemental tests (e.g. impact)
  • The test record is documented as Procedure Qualification Record (PQR), which is retained by the employer
  • Performance Qualifications Test – to determine that the welder is capable of depositing sound weld metal
  • Additional essential variables, e.g. position, pipe diameter 
  • The test record is documented as Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ), which is retained by the employer
  • Need to weld with manual (or automatic) process periodically, if not for 6 months, re-qualification required (could be on production weld that is X Rayed)
  • Procedure and performance qualifications may be by other than the employer under certain conditions if the inspector approves.

Welding Processes – Electric Arc

  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), a.k.a. stick welding
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), a.k.a. MIG
  • Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), a.k.a. TIG

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

  • Suitable for windy, outdoor conditions
  • Low cost equipment
  • All position capabilities
  • Good choice for on-site welding

Gas Metal Arc Welding

  • Not suitable for windy, outdoor conditions
  • Moderate cost equipment
  • All position capabilities
  • Fast welding speeds possible
  • No slag to clean

Flux Cored Arc Welding

  • Suitable for windy, outdoor conditions
  • Same equipment as for GMAW
  • Out of position capabilities
  • High metal deposition rate

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

  • Not suitable for windy, outdoor conditions
  • Moderate cost equipment
  • All position capabilities
  • Low metal deposition rate
  • No slag to clean
  • Highest quality, most precise welds


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