Saturday, January 9, 2016
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 7:10 AM
When compared to other equipment in a hydrocarbon processing plant, the piping network is designed to the most stringent standards. Mechanical Engineering codes require a 400% safety factor in the design of these systems. The piping system is normally considered the safest part of the plant. However, even with this level of safety, reviews of catastrophic accidents show that piping system failures represent that largest percentage of equipment failures.
Since these systems are responsible for many catastrophic accidents, operations, design, and maintenance personnel should understand the potential safety concerns. The best tool that we have to prevent future accidents is to review past incidents and incorporate lessons learned into future design and operation of piping systems.
This paper will discuss various case studies that will help to illustrate the consequences of inappropriate design, operation, and maintenance of piping systems. The case studies include:
1) Check valve failures;
2) Small bore piping in compressor discharge piping,
3) Low temperature embitterment, and
4) Hot tapping safety issues and hot tap shavings concerns.
Check valves are important safety devices in piping. Check valves have been utilized in the process industry for many years to keep material from flowing the wrong way and causing operational or safety concerns. One common mistake is installing the check valve backwards and blocking the process flow. There is normally an arrow on the check valve designating the proper flow direction, indicating the proper installation position. There have been cases where the manufacturer showed the arrow incorrectly, which greatly hindered troubleshooting.
Continue reading in the embedded PDF....
Friday, December 11, 2015
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 4:39 AM
To know piping design basics by going through the following points:
- Design of pressure components.
- Pipe Span calculations.
- Design of pipe supports & hangers.
- Stiffness & flexibility.
- Expansion & stresses.
- Line expansion & flexibility.
- Supports & anchorage of piping.
Design of pressure piping
Many decisions need be made in the design phase to achieve this successful operation, including:
- Required process fluid quantity.
- Optimum pressure-temperature.
- Piping material selection.
- Insulation selection (tracing).
- Stress & nozzle load determination.
- Pipe support standard.
The codes provide minimal assistance with any of these decisions as the codes are not design manuals.
Design of pressure components
- Pipe Structure “static” design, not Layout design.
- Limitations: Code, Pressure, Temperature, How long is the plant lifetime, What is the plant reliability, etc..
- Piping designed according to B31.3 has less lifetime than B31.1 due to lower F.S.
- Reliability of piping under B31.1 should be higher than B31.3
- Given that the code is a product of pressure technology, one of the concerns is the pressure-temperature ratings of the components.
- Each system be it vessel or piping has some base pressure-temperature rating. This is essentially the pressure temperature rating of the weakest member of the system. This can be translated that no minor component (valve, flange, etc) shall be the weakest link.
- The key components of the design conditions are the design pressure and the design temperature.
- Design pressure is defined as the most severe sustained pressure which results in the greatest component thickness and the highest component pressure rating.
- Design temperature is defined as the sustained pipe metal temperature representing the most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature.
- Thus we can try to simplify our stresses into two main categories;
- Pressure stress is the circumferential stress (primary stress) or hoop stress, which is known to be not self limiting.
- Temperature stress is the shear or bending stress (Secondary stress), known to be self limiting.
- In addition VIBRATION, has to be addressed as low cycle high stress named as “thermal expansion cycles”, represented by f=1 for 7000 cycles, otherwise detailed design has to be performed to prove that the pipe will withstand high cycle, low stress loads.
Design of pressure components Wall Thickness Calculation
The code assists the designer in determining adequate pipe wall thickness for a given material and design conditions as follows:
- Calculate the pressure design thickness “t”
- Add the mechanical corrosion and erosion allowances “c” to obtain the thickness tm=t+c
- Add mill tolerance (MT) to tm, then select the next commercially available wall thickness.
- Provided t
[PPT] Design & Construction of Piping Systems
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 4:23 AM
This course provides an overview of process plant piping system design. It discusses requirements contained in ASME B31.3, Process Piping, plus additional requirements and guidelines based on common industry practice. The information contained in this course is readily applicable to on-the-job applications, and prepares participants to take more extensive courses if appropriate.
What is a piping system
A piping system conveys fluid from one location to another. Within a process plant, the locations are typically one or more equipment items (e.g., pumps, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, process heaters, etc.), or individual process plants that are within the boundary of a process facility.
A piping system consists of:
- Pipe sections
- Fittings (e.g., elbows, reducers, branch connections, etc.)
- Flanges, gaskets, and bolting
- Pipe supports and restraints
Each individual component plus the overall system must be designed for the specified design conditions.
Scope of ASME B31.3
ASME B31.3 specifies the design, materials, fabrication, erection, inspection, and testing requirements for process plant piping systems. Process plants include petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related process plants and terminals.
ASME B31.3 applies to piping and piping components that are used for all fluid services, not just hydrocarbon services. These include the following:
- Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals.
- Petroleum products.
- Gas, steam, air, and water.
- Fluidized solids.
- Cryogenic fluids.
The following are excluded from the scope of ASME B31.3:
- Piping systems for internal gauge pressures at or above zero but less than 15 psi, provided that the fluid is nonflammable, nontoxic, and not damaging to human tissue, and its design temperature is from -20°F through 366°F.
- Power boilers that are designed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and external boiler piping that must conform to ASME B31.1.
- Tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds that are located inside a fired heater enclosure.
- Pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, and other fluid-handling or processing equipment. This includes both internal piping and connections for external piping.
Overview of Process Plant Piping System Design by Carmagen Engineering
Thursday, December 10, 2015
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 7:12 AM
Here's the content of the book:
- Reference codes for piping design
- Pressure Temperature Ratings
- Hydrostatic Test Pressure for all material group
- Non-destructive examination of Fabricated Pipe Welds
- End Preparation for Welding
- Installed Cost of Corrosion Resistant Piping
- Relative Carrying Capacity of Pipe for Water
- Relative Carrying Capacity of Pipe for Air, Steam and Gas
- COADE STRESS ANALYSIS SEMINAR NOTES by COADE: Must have tutorial guide for every piping stress engineer using CAESAR II. Explains in details all the basics of Caesar II application.
- PIPING HANDBOOK by M L Nayyar: One good book for both stress and layout engineers with huge important database on piping engineering. Refer this book for any data you require during your day to day piping works.
- PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN by Rhea and Parisher: The best book for a beginner. Covers the basics in simple language. Very easy to understand.
- PROCESS PLANT LAYOUT AND PIPING DESIGN by Hunt and Bausbacher: The best book for a piping layout engineer. Covers the basics of piping layout. Most of the preliminary layout ideas connected to any equipment evolves from this book. So read this book attentively for effective layout knowledge.
Piping Design Data Book by Hyundai
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 6:58 AM
This specification covers general requirements concerning process and utility piping systems which may be included in the plant constructed by Toyo Engineering India Ltd (hereinafter referred to as PMC).
The extent of piping systems to which this specification is to be applied, shall be as indicated on the applicable piping and instrument flow diagrams (hereinafter referred to as P&I), and utility flow diagrams (hereinafter referred to as UFD). However, piping systems which are furnished as a regular part of proprietary or standardized equipment (or package unit) may be in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's standards.
Instrument piping/tubing systems from the first fitting or block valve on the piping systems shall not be covered by this specification.
The requirements for inspections and tests of piping materials, and other requirements for piping construction are not specified in this specification.
Specific Job Requirements
Specific Job Requirements which are attached to this specification cover modifications to this specification and Customer's special or local requirements as well as specific job data pertinent to this specification. Where Specific Job Requirements are in contradiction to this specification, Specific Job Requirements shall govern.
Codes and Standards
Piping systems and piping materials shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with the applicable codes and standards.
Unless otherwise specified, metric, degree Celsius and kilogram units shall be applied, but nominal sizes of piping shall be in accordance with inch system (NPS). The units and numerical values given in [ ] in this specification are based on the International System of Units (SI) and are appended for reference.
Related Engineering Specifications
H-100 "Plant Layout"
H-103 "Piping Materials"
H-107 "Steam Tracing Piping"
L-101 "Thermal Insulation Design"
Piping Design Basis
Design of piping systems and materials shall be in accordance with this specification and ASME Code for "CHEMICAL PLANT AND PETROLEUM REFINERY PIPING" B31.3 & “POWER PIPING”B 31.1, unless otherwise specified in the applicable codes and standards.
Design Pressure and Temperature
(1) The design pressures and temperatures shall be determined, considering start-up, shutdown conditions and other requirements for safety as well as normal operating conditions.
(2) Design conditions for piping systems shall be summarized in "Line Schedule".
(1) All piping materials shall conform to the requirements of ASTM.
(2) Materials to other national standards such as BS, DIN, JIS etc, or special materials not covered in codes and standards may be applied with approval by PMC.
(3) Detail specifications of piping materials shall be in accordance with Engineering Specification H-103 "Piping Materials".
(4) Piping material shall be properly marked for easy identification, Procedure for the same to established by LSTK contractor for marking of piping material and the shall be approved by TEIL/Owner.
Engineering Specification of Piping Design By Toyo Engineering
Wednesday, December 9, 2015
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 8:23 AM
Purpose and Application Scope
The purpose of this manual is to increase efficiency and establish standards for design by providing the basic concept necessary for piping design and the criteria for detailed design relevant to pump on the plant which is designed and/or constructed by Samsung Engineering Co., Ltd. The scope included in this manual is for the normal pumps under room temperature, and it shall not be used for special pumps.
Relevant Manuals and Standards
1.2.1 Relevant to pump layout decision criteria
(1) SEM-2002 "Plant Layout Standard (for Chemical Plant)"
1.2.2 Relevant to pump surroundings piping
(1) SEM-3039 "Piping Design Criteria"
(2) SEM-3016 "Piping Flexibility Analysis"
(3) API 610 "Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service"
(4) API 686 "Recommended Practice for Machinery Installation and Installation Design"
1.2.3 Relevant to pump surroundings support
(1) SEM-3040 "Pipe Hanging No.1 (Piping Hanging Manual)"
(2) SEM-3043 "Pipe Support Design Data"
1.3 Basic Concept
1.3.1 Definition of pump
Pump is a device which give pressure to fluid passing through it and discharges the
fluid to the outside.
Samsung Piping Design Manual of Pump Piping
Monday, November 30, 2015
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 8:18 AM
This book's purpose is to show how to apply mechanical engineering concepts to process system design. Process systems are common to a wide variety of industries including petrochemical processing, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing, power generation (including cogeneration), ship building, and even the aerospace industry. The book is based on years of proven, successful practice, and almost all of the examples described are from process systems now in operation.
While practicality is probably its key asset, this first volume contains a unique collection ofvaluable information, such as velocity head data; comparison ofthe flexibility and stiffness methods of pipe stress analyses; analysis of heat transfer through pipe supports and vessel skirts; a comprehensive method on the design of horizontal vessel saddles as well as a method to determine when wear plates are required; detailed static and dynamic methods of tower design considering wind gusts, vortex-induced vibration and seismic analysis of towers; and a comparative synopsis of the various national wind cooes.
Topics include.d in the text are considered to be those typically encountered in engineering practice. Therefore, because most mechanical systems involve single phase flow, two-phase flow is not covered. Because of its ubiquitous coverage in the literature, flange design is also excluded in this presentation. Since all of the major pressure vessel codes thoroughly discuss and illustrate the phenomenon of external pressure, this subject is only mentioned briefly.
This book is not intended to be a substitute or a replacement of any accepted code or standard. The reader is strongly encouraged to consult and be knowledgeable of any accepted standard or code that may govern. It is felt that this book is a valuable supplement to any standard or code used.
The book is slanted toward the practices of the ASME vessel and piping codes. In one area of vessel design the British Standard is favored because it nrovides excellent technical information on Zick rings. The book is written to be useful regardless of which code or standard is used.
The intent is not to be heavily prejudiced toward any standard, but to discuss the issue-engineering. If one feels that a certain standard or code should be mentioned, please keep in mind that there are others who may be using different standards and it is impossible to discuss all of them.
The reader's academic level is assumed to be a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering, but engineers with bachelor of science degrees in civil, chemical, electrical, or other engineering disciplines should have little difficulty with the book, provided, of course, that they have received adequate academic training or experience.
Junior or senior undergraduate engineering students should find the book a useful introduction to the application of mechanical engineering to process systems. Professors should find the book a helpful reference (and a source for potential exam problems), as well as a practical textbook for junior-, senior-, or graduate level courses in the mechanical, civil, or chemical engineering fields. The book can also be used to supplement an introductory level textbook.
The French philosopher Voltaire once said, "Common sense is not very common," and unfortunately, this is sometimes the case in engineering. Common sense is often the by-product of experience, and while both are essential to sound engineering practice, neither can be learned from books alone. It is one ofthis book's eoats to unite these three elements of "book learning," common sense, and experience to give the novice a better grasp of engineering principles and procedures, and serve as a
practical design reference for the veteran engineer.
Finally, I wish to thank Dr. John J. McKetta, professor of chemical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, who had many helpful comments, suggestions, and words of encouragement. I also wish to thank other engineering faculty members at the University of Texas at Austin for their comments. I must exDress thanks to Larry D. Briggs for reviewing some calculations in Chapter 4; and last, but certainly not least, I wish to express gratitude to William J. Lowe and Timothy W. Calk
of Gulf Publishing Company, whose hard work and patience made this book possible.
Table of Contents:
Piping Fluid Mechanics ........... 1
Basic Equations, INon-Newtonian Fluids, 5Velocity Heads, 8Pipe Flow Geometries, 22Comoressible Flow. 25Piping Fluid Mechanics Problem Formulation, 25Example 1-1: Friction Pressure Drop for a Hydrocarbon Gas-Steam Mixture in a Pipe, 27Example 1-2: Frictional Ptessure Drop for a Hot Oil System of a Process Thnk, 33Example 1-3: Friction Pressure Drop for a Waste Heat Recovery System, 42Example 1-4: Pressure Drop in Relief Valve Piping System, 43Notation, 45References, 45
The Engineering Mechanics of Piping .,...47
Piping Criteria, 47Primary and Secondary Stresses, 49
Allowable stress Range for Secondary Stresses.
Flexibility and Stiffness of Piping Systems, 52
Stiffness Method Advantages. Flexibility
Stiffness Method and Large Piping, 58Flexibility Method of Piping Mechanics. Pipe
PiD- e Restraints and Anchors. 68
Pipe Lug Supports. Spfing Supports. Expansion Joints. Pre-stressed Piping.
Fluid Forces Exerted on Piping Systems, 81Extraneous Piping Loads, 83Example 2-l: Applying the Stiffness Method to a Modular Skid-Mounted Gas Liquefaction Facility,88Example 2-2: Applying the Flexibility Method to a Steam Turbine Exhaust Line, 95Example 2-3: Flexibility Analysis for Hot Oil Piping,96Example 2-42 Lug Design, 98Example 2-5: Relief Valve Piping System, 99Example 2-61 Wind-Induced Vibrations of Piping, 100Notation, 101References, 101
Heat Transfer in Piping and Equipment ... 103
Jacketed Pipe versus Traced Pipe, 103Tracing Piping Systems, 106
Traced Piping without Heat Tmnsfer Cement.
Traced Piping with Heat Transfer Cement.
Condensate Return. Jacketed Pipe. Vessel and
Equipment Traced Systems.Heat Transfer in Residual Systems, 132
Heat Transfer through Cylindrical Shells. Residual Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoes.
Example 3-1: Steam Tracing Design, 136Example 3-2: Hot Oil Tracing Design, 137Example 3-3: Jacketed Pipe Design, 139Example 3-4: Thermal Evaluation of a Process Thnk, 140Example 3-5: Thermal Design of a Process Tank, 142
Internal Baffle Plates Film Coefficient. Film
Coefficient External to Baffles-Forced
Convection. Heat Duty of Internal Vessel
Plates. Outside Heat Transfer Jacket Plates.Heat Duty of Jacket Plates Clamped to BottomVessel Head. Total Heat Duty of Tank.
Example 3-6: Transient and Static Heat Transfer Design, 148
Static Heat Transfer Analysis. Total Heat
Removal. Water Required for Cooling.
Transient Hear Transfer Analysis.
Example 3-7: Heat Transfer through Vessel Skirts, 152Example 3-E: Residual Heat Transfer, 154Example 3-9: Heat Transfer through Pipe Shoe, 156Notation, 156References, 157
The Engineering Mechanics of Pressure
Vessels ... . ..... 159Designing for Internal Pressure, 159Designing for External Pressure, 160Design of Horizontal Pressure Vessels, 166
Longitudinal Bending Stresses. Location of Saddle Supports. Wear Plate Design. Zick
Steel Saddle Plate Design, 174Saddle Bearing Plate Thickness, 180Design of Self-Supported Vertical Vessels, 180Minimum Shell Thickness Reouired for Combined Loads, 181Support Skirt Design, 183Anchor Bolts, 184Base Plate Thickness Design, 186Compression Ring and Gusset Plate Design, 189Anchor Bolt Torque, 189Whd Aralysis of Towers, 190Wind Design Speeds. Wind-Induced Moments.Wind-Induced Deflections of Towers. l ind-Induced Vibrations on Tall Towers.Ovaling. Criteda for Vibration Analysis.Seismic Design of Tall Towers, 209Vertical Distribution of Shear Forces.Tower Shell Discontinuities and Conical Sections, 1t iExanple 4-l: Wear Plate Requirement Analysis, 215Example 12: Mechanical Design of Process Column. 215
Section moments of Inertial tower Section
Stress Calcularions. Skirt and Base Plate
Design- Section Centroids. Vortex-Induced
vibrarion. Equivalent Diameter Approachversus - ANSI A58.1- 1982.
Example 4-3: Seismic Analysis of a Vertical Tower, 237Example 44: Vibration Analysis for Tower with Large Vortex-Induced Displacements, 241
Moments of Inertia. Wind Deflections.
Example 4-5: Saddle Plate Analysis of a Horizontal Vessel, 249Saddle Plate Buckling Analysis. Horizontal Reaction Force on Saddle.Notation,252References,254
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 7:48 AM
Fiber Glass Systems’(FGS) fiberglass reinforced epoxy and vinyl ester resin piping systems possess excellent corrosion resistance and a combination of mechanical and physical properties that offer many advantages over traditional piping systems. Fiber Glass Systems is recognized worldwide as a
leading supplier of piping systems for a wide range of chemical and industrial applications.
This manual is provided as a reference resource for some of the specific properties of FGS piping systems. It is not intended to be a substitute for sound engineering practices as normally employed by professional design engineers.
Fiber Glass Systems has an international network of distributors and trained field personnel to advise on proper installation techniques. It is recommended they be consulted for assistance when installing FGS piping systems. This not only enhances the integrity of the piping system, but also increases the efficiency and economy of the installation.
Table of Contents
Piping System Selection
SECTION 1 — Flow Properties
Preliminary Pipe Sizing
Detailed Pipe Sizing
A. Liquid Flow
B. Loss in Pipe Fittings
C. Open Channel Flow
D. Gas Flow
SECTION 2 — Above Ground System Design Using
Supports, Anchors & Guides
Piping Support Design
A. Support Bracket Design
B. Typical Guide Design
C. Anchor Design
D. Piping Support Span Design
SECTION 3 — Temperature Effects
Thermal Properties and Characteristics
Fundamental Thermal Analysis Formulas
A. Thermal Expansion and Contraction
B. Anchor Restraint Load
C. Guide Spacing
Flexibility Analysis and Design
A. Directional Change Design
B. Expansion Loop Design
C. Expansion Joint Design
D. Heat Tracing
E. Thermal Conductivity
F. Thermal Expansion in Buried Pipe
G. Pipe Torque due to Thermal Expansion
SECTION 4 — Pipe Burial
A. Soil Types
B. Soil Modulus
Trench Excavation and Preparation
A. Trench Size
B. Trench Construction
C. Maximum Burial Depth
D. Roadway Crossing
Bedding and Backfill
A. Trench Bottom
B. Backfill Materials
C. Backfill Cover
D. High Water Table
SECTION 5 — Other Considerations
A. Abrasive Fluids
B. Low Temperature Applications
C. Pipe Passing Through Walls or
D. Pipe Bending
E. Static Electricity
F. Steam Cleaning
G. Thrust Blocks
H. Vacuum Service
K. Fluid (Water) Hammer
L. Ultraviolet (U.V.) Radiation and Weathering
M. Fungal, Bacterial, and Rodent Resistance
SECTION 6 — Specifications and Approvals
A. Compliance with National Specifications
B. Approvals, Listings, and Compliance with Regulations
Appendix A Useful Formulas
Appendix B Conversions
LIST OF TABLES
- Table 1.0 Typical Applications
- Table 1.1 Flow Resistance K Values for Fittings
- Table 1.2 Typical Liquid Properties
- Table 1.3 Typical Gas Properties
- Table 2.0 Minimum Support Width
- Table 2.1 Saddle Length
- Table 4.0 Recommended Bedding and Backfill
- Table 4.1 Nominal Trench Widths
- Table 6.0 ASTM 2310 Classification
- Table 6.1 Classifying Fiberglass Flanges to ASTM D4024
- Table 6.2 Classifying Fiberglass Pipe Using ASTM D2310 and Specifying Pipe Using ASTM D2996 and D2997
Wednesday, November 18, 2015
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 6:03 AM
Selection and Limitations of Piping Components
- Pipes and Fittings
- Comments on selection and Limitations of Components
- Piping Joints
- Fabrication, Assembly and Erection of Process Plant Piping
- Examination , Inspection and Testing
Pipe and Fittings
Furnace lap weld ferrous pipe, furnace butt-weld ferrous pipe, spiral-weld ferrous pipe, and fusion-welded steel pipe (made to ASTM A134, A53, Type F, API 5L furnace butt welded and A211) are not permitted for hydrocarbons or other flammable fluids within process unit limits or for hazardous fluids in any location. Non-ferrous pipe made by similar manufacturing process is similarly restricted.
The use of bell-and-spigot fittings is limited to water and drainage service. Also, pipe couplings made of cast, malleable, or wrought iron are not permitted for flammable fluids within process limits or hazardous fluids in any area. In addition, they cannot be used for flammable fluids outside process unit limits at design temperatures above 300°F or design pressures above 400 psig.
Comments on Selection and Limitations of Components
There are many Code mandated restrictions for the use of fittings, bends, intersections, and valves which are not universally applicable to all process plant services, and such components are not easily codified. Some guides, however, are of value to the designer and are listed:
- Welding fittings are usually preferred to flanged fittings, not only for economic reasons but because the potential for leakage is reduced.
- Pipe bends are preferred to butt welding elbows for reciprocating compressor suction and discharge piping, vapour relief-valve discharge piping, and piping conveying corrosive fluids (such as acid where turbulence in a fitting may cause excessive corrosion).
- Bends or dead end tees should be used for piping which conveys pulverized abrasive solids suspended in gas in the dilute phase. Dead end tees (so arranged that the flow will impinge against the dead end) have a longer life than bends in abrasive service and should be used if the system can be designed to accommodate the resulting increase in pressure drop.
- Bends should be used for dense phase flow of pulverized abrasive solids and for all piping which handles either pulverized or granular solids suspended in liquids or granular solids suspended in gases.
- If the flow is through a branch into a header (or run pipe) in a piping system which transports pulverized abrasive solids suspended in gas in the dilute phase, a dead end cross (so arranged that the flow will impinge against the dead end) should be used.
- In services with very high corrosion rates, butt welding fittings with the same inside diameter (ID) as the attached pipe (if not the same, consider taper boring the component with the smaller ID) are preferred to threaded and socket welding fittings.
- Threaded cast iron fittings should not be used in pressurized process and utility piping.
- Threaded plugs are preferred to pipe caps for threaded end closures to reduce dead end corrosion problems.
- In most process plants, internal corrosion is a greater problem than external corrosion. Consequently, it is common practice that all 3/4 in and larger steel and cast iron (and all 2 1/2 in and larger brass) gate, globe, and angle valves (located above grade) be of the outside screw and yoke type.
Read more in embedded PDF:
Friday, October 16, 2015
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 6:30 AM
Here a big list of spreadsheets available for download from Piping, Process, Instrumentation, Mechanical, Drilling and Civil.
Beam and Pipe Spreadsheets:
- CALCULO SOPORTES.xls
- DIÁMETROS DE TUBERIA.xlsx
- POLIN TIPO-A.xls
- POLIN TIPO-B.xls
- Prontuario del Acero.xls
- Tablas Varias.xls
Civil Engineering Spreadsheets
- Bar Schedule 8666.xlt
- Daniel-Conventional Slabs.xls
- Daniel-Pile Caps.xls
- Daniel-Tank Footing.xls
- Steel Beam.xls
- Tank Size Calculator.xls
- Wind Design.xls